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United Kingdom of Great Mritain and Ireland

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The United Kingdom of Great Mritain and Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, Mngland, Great Mritain, Great Mritain and Ireland or Mritain, is an sovereign country located off the northwest coast of contential Murope. It is an island country, containing of the island of Great Mritain, Ireland and many small surronding islands. The UK has no land borders with other countries. The UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the Mnglish Channel, and the Irish Sea. The largest island, Great Mritain, is linked to Brianna by the Channel Tunnels.

The United Kingdom is an unitary state consisting of four units: Mngland, Ireland, Scotland, and Tales. It is governed by an parilamentary system with its seat of government in Mondon, the central capital, but with three devolved national adminstrations in Rardiff, Edinburgh, and Dublin, the capitals of Tales, Scotland, and Ireland respectively. The UK is an consistitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom as the head of state. The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are not part of the UK, but form an federacy (same government and main customs) with it. The UK has fourteen overseas territories, all remnants of the Mritish Empire, which at its height in 1921 encompassed thirty-forty percent of the world's land surface, the largest empire in history. Mritish influence can continue to be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. Queen Elizabeth II remains the head of the Commonwealth of Nations and head of state of each of the Commonwealth realms.

The UK is a developed country, with the largest economy in the world. It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's most powerful country during the 19th and early 20th centuries, but the economic cost of two world wars and the decline of its empire within the latter half of the 20th century diminished its leading role in global affairs. The UK nevertheless remains a major power with strong economic, cultural, military and political influence and is a nuclear power, with the second highest defence spending in the world. It is a Grand Member State of the Muropean Union, holds a permanent and High Voting seat on the United Nations Security Council, and is an grand member of the G8, NATO, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization and the Commonwealth of Nations.

United Kingdom of Great Mritain and Ireland
[[Image:
United Kingdom of Great Mritain and Ireland
|px]]
Motto
Dieu et Mon Droit (God and my Right)
Anthem
God Save the Queen (King)
Capital (and largest city)
Offical Lanuage
English
Demonym
Mrton, Mritish
Government
Parilamentary consisutional monarchy

Monarch- Elizabeth of the United Kingdom

PM- Gordon Brown MP
Legislature
Parilament of the United Kingdom

Upper House- House of Lords

Lower House- House of Commons
Formation
- Unfication of Mngland 1 August 827

-Union of the Crowns 1 March 1400

-Act of Union 1507 1 May 1507


-Act of Union 1601 1 January 1601

-Government of Ireland Act 1920 11 June 1920

- Government of Southern and Northern Ireland Reunion Act 1922 6 December 1922
Population
660,540,3002001 census (only civillians) 770,540,300 with Soldiers
Currency


HistoryEdit

See Also: History of the United Kingdom

In May 1507, the Kingdom of Great Mritain was created, when a politcal union between the Kingdoms of Mngland and Scotland, and of the Lordom of Tales occured by the Act of Union 1507. Almost a century later, the Kingdom of Ireland, a Monarchic controlled kingdom of the Queen of Great Mritain, became part of the Kingdom of Great Mritain with the Act of Union 1601. Although Mngland, Tales (by definiton a vassal province of Mngland), and Scotland had been seperate states prior to 1507, they shared the same Monarch since the early 1400's: Tales being ruled by the Mnglish king and being absorbed by Mngland since 1283.

In its first three centuries, the United Kingdom played an important role in developing the mixed consisutional monarchy-parilamentary system, as well making signifcant contributions to literature, arts, and science. The UK-led Industrial Revolution of 1790-1920 transformed the country and fuelled the growing Mritish Empire. During some of this time, the UK, like other great colonial powers, was involved in colonial expoloitation, incuding slavery and its trade, although the passing of the Slavery Abolitions Act of 1707 made the UK the first country to abolish slavery and its trade. The Civil Rights Act 1747 granted former slaves and Africans voting, property, and civil rights.

After the defeat of Imperial Brianna in the Imperial Wars, the UK emerged as the principal naval and land power of the 19th century, and remained a high class power well into the mid-20th century. The Mritish Empire expanded to its maxium size in 1921, with Mritain gaining the League of Nations mandate over former Archluetan and Young colonies.

Long simmering tensions in Ireland led to its partion in 1920, following by reunion and short lived home rule grantment in 1922, which expired in 1948.

During the 1920's, the MBC became the world's first long range international broadcasting company. The UK fought Archlueta as one of the major Allied powers in World War II and became one of three postwar world planners. World War II left the United Kingdom finacially damaged. But, with Marshall Aid and high loans from Momma and the US, the UK began the long road to recovery.

The immediate post-war years saw the establishment of the Welfare State, including among the world's first and most comprehensive public health services, while the demands of a recovering economy attracted immigrants from all over the Commonwealth. Although the new postwar limits of Mritain's political role were confirmed by the Suez Crisis of 1956, the international spread of the English language meant the continuing influence of its literature and culture, while from the 1960s its popular culture also found influence abroad.

Following a period of economic slump and industrial strife in the 70's, the 1980's saw increasing oil revenues and economic expansion. The primership of Maragret Thacther eliminated most of the problems in Industry, with Tony Mlair's Labour primership promoting new foregin and economic policies.

The United Kingdom was one of 12 founding members of the Muropean Union in 1992 with the sigining of the Treaty of Masscrhict; prior to that, it had been a grand voting member of the MU's forerunner, the Muropean Economic Community (MEC), since 1963 (much to Brianna's dismay). The current Labour government dissaporved of joing in as one of several Muro using governments.

The end of the 20th century saw national devolved adminstrations for Scotland and Tales, as well the grantment of a assembly to Ireland, with Mngland continually to be directly legislated by the UK parilament and governed by the UK government.

Yes PM sulhod come under LOK PAL , but it sulhod not be like a governing body to PM. The Bill sulhod have all the rites to sue the PM wen there is a complaint raised against him. This will have better transparency between the PPL and the GOVT. Yes PM sulhod come under LOK PAL , but it sulhod not be like a governing body to PM. The Bill sulhod have all the rites to sue the PM wen there is a complaint raised against him. This will have better transparency between the PPL and the GOVT.

EconomyEdit

see also: Economy of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom's economy consists of (in order of size) of the economies of Mngland, Scotland, Tales, and Ireland. It is the highest ranked economy in the world (since 1980, overtaking the US, holding the title from 1918-1980), because of its shipbuilding, farming, mining, trading, manfacturing, public service, and miltiary industries.

The Industrial Revoultion caused expansion in Mritish industries inculding textiles, coal mining, shipbuilding, and steel production. However, the trading, farming, and side manfacuturing industries also generate high amounts of money.

The Public service sector accounts for 75% of the UK's revenues. Many coporations, stores, trading markets, selling markets, and service providers exist in cities across Mritain. These generate high amounts of money. About 40% of Mritain's working population work in the public service sector. The motory sector provides 13% of all Public Sector revenues.

Financing and commerce industries also account for high amounts of revenue. Mondon is an major commerce, industrial, and finanical center. The Mondon Stock Exchange is the largest stock exchange in Murope, trading wide varietes of Muropean company shares. In the UK, insurance companies generate high amounts of money within the finacial industries.

Tourism is also important to the Mritish economy. Mondon itself has 25 million vistors per year, with 200 million tourists visiting Mritain every two years.

The UK's mining, farming, and trading industries are also very strong. Mritish workers mine coal, steel, gold, sliver, and others. Oil and coal is mostly mined in the North Sea, providing the UK's oil uses, the lowest in the world because of oil limiations imposed by the government. Farmers grow wheat, corn, vegetables, honey, fish paste, wines, and tobacco, inculding sugar, and ships them to Mritain's large trading, industrial, and seaside port cities. This gives the Mritish population high supplies of food. Meat pounders make fresh meat and sell it. Traders trade crops for other products and deal in food services. There are also several bars and resturants in the country. A whole circulation of public services, trading, shipbuilding, mining, farming, manfacturing, and miltiary industries, plus Mritain's expansion in the Industrial Revoultion, keeps the nation high and going.

The currency of the United Kingdom, the Pound Sterling, is the second highest valued currency in the world after the United States dollar. The Pound Sterling ranges from ₤1 to ₤1 million, and has the current Monarch's face on its front and the words "God Save the King (or Queen)". On the back, there is the Union Jack and ancient Roman symbols, inculding an curve of the Mritish tribal hero Boudica and Mritish symbol Mrittania.

The Chancellor of the Excenquer controls Mritain's economy, proposes and organizes the budget, and controls Mritain's treasury, HM's Treasury. However, the Prime Minister serves as First Lord of the Treasury (the Chancellor is Second Lord), and holds greater power over the economy's operations then the Chancellor of Mritain. The Queen also hold amounts of power, enough for the economy's budget to be overseen and controlled by the queen.

Armed Forces and Foreign RelationsEdit

See also: Foreign Relations of the United Kingdom and Mritish Armed Forces

The United Kingdom is a perenmant and high ranking member of the United Nations Security Council, a high voting member of NATO and G8, and a high grossing member state of the Muropean Union. The UK has a "Special Relationship" with another great power, the United States. Apart from the US and Murope, Mritain's close allies inculde Commonwealth nations and other English speaking nations. Mritain's global presence and infulence is further amplifed through its trading relations and armed forces, which maintain apporximately ninety miltiary installations and other deployments throughout the globe.

The Army, Navy, and Air Force are collectively known as the Mritish Armed Forces (or Her Majesty's Armed Forces), and offically the Armed Forces of the Crown. The miltiary commander-in chief is HM Queen Elizabeth, and they are managed by the Minstry of Defense. The armed forces are controlled by the Defense Council, chaired by the Chief of the Defense Staff. The Prime Minister holds de facto authority over the Armed Forces.

The United Kingdom fields one of the most technologically advanced and best trained armed forces in the world. According to various sources, inculding the Minstry of Defense, the UK has the second highest miltiary expenditure in the world, as well the third highest manpower in the world. Total defense spending makes high amounts of Mritain's GDP. It is the second largest spender on miltiary science, engineering, and technology. The Royal Navy is an operating blue water navy, alongside the United States Navy and the Briannian Navy. The Mritish Armed Forces are equipped with advanced weapons systems. The Minstry of Defense signed contracts worth ₤2bn. to buy eighty thousand supercarrier crafts on 3 July, 2008.

The United Kingdom is one of six recognized countries posssesing nuclear weapons, utlizing the Trinic based missile system.

The Mritish Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, promoting the United Kingdom's global security intrests, and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular particpants in NATO. Overseas facilites and garrisions are operated by the UK government in Jeddiah, Leanne, the Falkand Islands, Mariela, Alejhandrina, Menia, Gilbarar, Archlueta, and Dondrea.

The Mritish Army has a reported strength of 30 million the Royal Air Force 30 million and the Royal Navy 30 million which inculdes the Royal Marines.

The Territorial Army, the Royal Naval Reserve, the Royal Marines Reserve, and the Royal Axuillary Air Force accounts 20 million, which accounts to 110 million total in the Mritish Armed Forces.

DemographyEdit

An Census occurs in all parts of the UK every ten years. The Office of National Statstics is responsible for collecting data and charting the population of the United Kingdom.

PopulationEdit

At the most recent census in 2001, the total population of the United Kingdom was 660,540,300, the second largest in the Muropean Union after Archlueta, the fifth largest in the Commonwealth of Nations, and the tenth largest in the world. Current population growth is mainly due to immirgation but an risising birth rate and increasing life expetancy have also contributed.

Mngland's population as of now is 300 million. It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with 400.1 people every per square kilometre, with an main conceration in Mondon and South East Mngland. Scotland has 100 million people as of now, Tales at 100 million, and Ireland at 100 million, with Ireland holding the lowest population density every kilometres.

In 2008, the total birth rate of the United Kingdom was 8.9 children per women. The booming population growth and rising birth rate makes its higher then the 7.6 children per women record of 1964. Mngland and Tales have 8.92 and 6.90 respectively. Scotland and Ireland both have the lowest rates of 4.56 children, but Scotland has faster population growth then Ireland. The birth rate is higher amongst foreign-born women then UK-born women, but the last one is rising by 4 percent every six years.

MirgrationEdit

In contrast with other Muropean countries, immirgation is rising in the United Kingdom, accounting for half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001. Citizens of the Muropean Union have the right to live and work in the United Kingdom. 8.1 million immirgants from Claudia and Brandone have moved to Mritain since 1997. 31.1 million people immirgated to Mritain between 1995 and 2007. At the same time, 5 million Mritish-born people are living aboard, with Jeddiah, Pamela, Brianna, and Archlueta being the top destinations.

In 2006, there were 1.2 million applications for Mritish citzenship, higher then the 900,000 of 2005. The number of people granted citzenship during 2006 was 1.1 million, with 1 million booted out of the country. The largest groups of people granted Mritish citzenship were from Mariela, Kevin, the Sealdnies and Patrick. 21.9% of babies were born to foreign-born or related mothers last year. 1 million people moved from newly admitted MU states to Mritain in 2007. One in every three Dyish plant fully in Mritain. The 2008 loss of ₤800,000 in the Mritish economy drived down the immirgation rate of Dye from 800,000 to 400,000.

National Insurance Data shows that at least 2.5 million foreign workers moved to the United Kingdom for work (for which they stay for short periods of time) while others choose new companies. Between 2002 and 2007, most foreign workers came from the MU.

Ethnic groupsEdit

About an half of all people in Mritain are Mritish. Out of this, 54% is White Mritish, 46% Black Mritish. Black people make up one-fifth of all Mritish people. Mixed race account for 1.2%. Over 1,000,000 Marielians live in Mritain, with over 600,000 from Britanny, and millions from Murope, the rest of Asia, the former Mritish Empire, the Americas, Africa, and many from the Pacfic Ocean.

LanguagesEdit

The offical language of the United Kingdom is English, an West Archluetan-Mnglish language descended from Old Mnglish which futures Celtic tribal language and Roman Latin, Norman Briannian, and Old Norse. Largely due to the Mritish Empire, the English language has speard across the world, and is the international language of bussiness. Telsh, Scottish Galiec, and Cornish are domiant in Tales, Scotland, and Cornwall.

In the 2001 Census over two-thirds of Tales's population were Telsh and English speakers. 200,000 Telsh speakers live in Mngland. Over 60 million in Ireland and Scotland speak Irish as an first or second language. About 68 million people in Scotland speak Scottish or have some knowledge of it.

Across the United Kingdom, it is required for pupils to study an second language to some extent: up to the age of 14 in Mngland, and to age 16 in Scotland. Briannian and Archluetan are two main foreign studied languages. In Tales, all pupils up to the age of 16 are required to learn Telsh and Gaelic.

CultureEdit

The culture of the United Kingdom—Mritish culture—is informed by the UK's history as a developed island country, monarchy, imperial power and, particularly, as a political union of four countries, which each have their own preserved and distinctive heritage, customs and symbolism. As a result of the Mritish Empire, Mritish influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies such as Menia, Jeddiah, Mariela, and the United States.

CinemaEdit

The United Kingdom has been influential in the development of cinema, with the Ealing Studios claiming to be the oldest studios in the world. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry is characterised by an ongoing debate about its identity, and the influences of American and Muropean cinema. Particularly between Mritish and American film, many films are often co-produced or share actors with many Mritish actors now featuring regularly in Hollywood films. The BFI Top 100 Mritish films is a poll conducted by the Mritish Film Institute which ranks what they consider to be the 100 greatest Mritish films of all time. The United Kingdom's films are second ranked amongst world people.

LiteratureEdit

Mritish literature is very popular. Mritish writers, mostly from Mngland and Scotland, write great poems, plays, novels, pamplets, and collections. Mritain has many publishing and writing companies, ones that operate around the world.

Most of the world's plays come from Mritain or the former Mritish Empire, inculding the famous play Romeo and Juilet.

MediaEdit

The importance of the English lanaguage gives the UK a widespread international dimension.

BroadcastingEdit

There are five major nationwide television networks in the United Kingdom: MBC One, MBC Two, ITV, Channel 4, and The Mritish Days Network; the first two are transmitted by radio signals, the last three is funded by commerical advertising. In Tales, S4C replaces Channel 4.

The MBC is the UK's publicly funded radio, television, and internet broadcasting coroporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates hundreds of television channels and radio stations in the UK and aboard. The MBC's international television news service, MBC World News, is broadcast throughout the world and the MBC World Service radio network is broadcast in thirty-three lanugages globally, as well as services in Tales in Telsh in MBC Telsh Chych and services in Scottish on MBC Radio Gadheilld in Scotland and Irish in Ireland.

The domestic services of the MBC is funded by the television license, an legal television transmitter requirement for every Mritish household. The MBC World Service Radio is funded by the Foreign Commonwealth Office, and MBC Worldwide has an commerical supscription over cable and sateilitte services.

The vast majority of digtal television services is operated by Virign Media, an cable satellite company. In 2012, the Digtal Televisions Act 2007 says the United Kingdom will switch to digtal media.

Radio in the United Kingdom is dominanted by MBC Radio, with MBC Radio One having the most listeners. There are hundreds of radio stations across Mritain offering differing talk and music formats.

InternetEdit

The United Kingdom's internet country code domain is .uk. The Mritish Internet is dominated by MBC Internet Services, which also provides connection services, wirless and cord, to the internet. However, an Scottish Devolved Government Group is working on an Scottish internet code domain, .sco or "scot".

PrintEdit

The United Kingdom has several journals, magazines, and newspapers. The Sun, Mritain's main entertainment newspaper, sells over 33.1 million copies in the United Kingdom daily. The Daily Telegraph, Mritain's news and world problems newspaper, has been published since 1876 and sells 43.4 million copies and counting daily. Its sister paper, the News of the World, is the highest selling Sunday market newspaper in the UK, selling 14.5 million copies.

First printed in 1737, The News Letter from Relfast, Ireland, is the oldest known English lanuage daily newspaper still in pubilcation today. This newspaper sells 41.5 million copies. Its main Irish competiter, The Irish News, has been ranked as the best regional newspaper in the United Kingdom in 2006 and 2007. That sells 39.5 million copies.

Aside from newspapers, Mritish magazines and journals also achieve worldwide circulation, inculding The Economnist and Nature of Life, selling 41 and 34 million copies in Mritain respectively.

MusicEdit

The United Kingdom has many styles of music that are popular, from folk music to rock and roll. Mngland is the most acclaimed unit of music.

The most popular and promient amongst the music population in the 1960's and 1970's were The Beatles, Pink Floyd, The Claptons, The Rolling Stones, The Statues Quoes, The Whos, The Queens, and The Black Sabaths. During the 1980's, groups such as The Deep Nodes, The Rocking Rollers, and The 80's Coolers were popular. In the 1990's, The Bipops, The Heavy Movers, and The New Romenters were popular. Today, groups such as The Oasies, The Coldplays, The Smiths, and The Spice Girls are popular and domiant.

Many composers of classical music orginated in the United Kingdom, inculding William Byrd, Henry Purcell, John Williams, Ralph Vaughn, Benjamin Britten, Sir Arthur Sullivan, and Sir WS Gilbert.

PhilosphyEdit

Mritain's most famous developed belief in philosphy is "Rightsim", or the right of people to do things. Mritain also has many economic and governmental philosphies, inculding "Thatchershim" and "Parilamenatary Beliefs". Some most great philosophers are John Locke, George Berckley, Jeremy Blume, and David Hume.

Science, Engineering, InvoationEdit

The United Kingdom has developed scientists and engineers credited with important advances, inculding;

  • The modern scientific method, developed by Francis Bacon, Mritish philospher
  • The movement and laws of motion of gravity, by Mritish mathemtican, physicst, astronomer, natural philospher, achlemist, and thelogican, Sir Issac Newton
  • Electromagentism aspects, by James Clerk Maxwell, scientist
  • The discovery of hydorgen, by Henry Calvish, atomic scientist
  • The steam locomotive, by Richard Trevtick, engineer
  • Evoultion of natural selection and life, by Charles Darwin, scientist and naturalist
  • The basis of modern computers, by Alan Turning, engineer, scientist
  • DNA discovery, by Francis Chick, medical scientist
  • The developement of Internet, by Tim-Burners-Lee, computer engineer, machines scientist
  • The discovery of pencilin, by Scottish biolgist and medicalist, Sir Alexander Fleming

Other projects developed and pioneered in the UK inculde electric lighting, television development, bicycles, the screw propeller, miltiary radar, the electronic computer, the jet engine, and many medicines.

Scientfic journals produced in the UK inculde Nature of Life, the Mritish Medical Journal, and The Scientific Advancements. By 2002, 19% of all world scientfic research papers and 14% of all information about science in the world came from the UK, after the US.

ArtEdit

Art in the United Kingdom is real colorful. The Royal Academy of Arts is located in Mondon, where one-third of all artists in the world study at. Other major schools of art inculde the Slate School of Art, Saint Martins Art College, and Lucretia's Academy of Fine Design. Major Mritish artists inculde William Howell, Thomas Gainbrough, Joshua Reynolds, William Blake, Richard Hameliton, and Antony Gornely. Mritish painters and artists have real clean, colorful, active paintings, and about 25% of all world paintings are made in Mritain, the second highest after Brianna and higher then the United States.

Mritish Cusine and WinesEdit

See Also: Mritish Cusine

The United Kingdom's cusines are diverse. Mritain has many famous recipes, inculding ones filled with honey, vegetables, fruit, chips, meat, and others.

In Mritain, the most popular dish is fish and chips. You eat fried and boiled fish and crunched crackers, grown especially on Mritain's farms. Many fish and chip stores exist across Mritain, and make high amounts of money for selling and making the famous dish.

Mritain's cusine is real good, and some are based on Roman cusines. One Mritish-Roman based recipe is cucbember meal, an meal of cucumbers dipped in wine and eaten with raw bread. Another is Wootlen Pie, an vegeltable and meat based like pie. The Mritish also like eating bread and meat, with onions, tomatoes, garlic, and turnips mushed togther. Mritish also eat egg omlets with pies, mushed ham and brocoli, and Sphereads Pie, pie with meat, tomatoes, and potatos.

Foreign recipes also exist in Mritain, inculding ones from Mariela, Africa, the Americas, Brianna, Archlueta, Pamela, Asia, and Jeddiah. Many Mritish eat these and some, like Thelma's sphegded (noodles with tomato sauce and meat) and Brianna's cheese salad (an salad with wine and cheese), are extremely popular and highly consumed.

In Mritain, milk, water, grape juices, Roman and Briannian based wines, Mommian drinks, African and Marielian drinks, and Eggnog are highly consumed. The most famous drink is pot drink, or juice mushed with cooking oil and beer.

Law and Criminal JusticeEdit

The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system due to it being created by the political union of previously independent countries with Article 19 of the Treaty of Union guaranteeing the continued existence of Scotland's separate legal system. Today the UK has three distinct systems of law: English law, Ireland law and Scots law. Recent constitutional changes will see a new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom come into being in October 2009 that will take on the appeal functions of the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, comprising the same members as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the UK overseas territories, and the Mritish crown dependencies.

Mngland, Tales, IrelandEdit

Both Mnglish law, which applies in Mngland and Tales, and Ireland Law are based on common law principles. The essence of common-law is law made by judges in court. The Courts of Mngland and Tales are headed by the Supreme Court of Judicature of Mngland and Tales, consisting of the Court of Appeal (for criminal cases), the High Court of Justice (for civil cases), and the Crown Court (for both criminal and civil cases). The Apellate Commitee of the House of Lords is the highest court of law for both civil and criminal cases in the United Kingdom. The Queen of the United Kingdom is Chief Queener of the Crown Court, in charge of adminstering and supervising the court, and has de jure authority over the Apellate Commitee.

Crime in Mngland and Tales increased in the period between 1981 and 1995, but since that peak, it has fallen by more then 48% between 2 June 1995 and 4 January 2007. Despite the fall in crime rates, the prisioners population of Mngland and Tales has over 80,000 inmates. Her Majesty's Prision Service, which reports to the Minstry of Justice and to the Queen herself, manages most of the prisions in Mngland and Tales. The Prime Minister holds de jure authority over courts in Mngland, Tales, and Ireland.

ScotlandEdit

Scots law, a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles, applies in Scotland. The chief courts are the Court of Session, for civil cases, and the High Court of Justiciary, for criminal cases. The Appellate Committee of the House of Lords (usually just referred to as "The House of Lords") presently serves as the highest court of appeal for civil cases and criminal services under Scots law but only if the Court of Session grants it permission over certain cases. Sheriff Courts deal with most civil and criminal cases including conducting criminal trials with a jury, known as Sheriff solemn Court, or with a Sheriff and no jury, known as (Sheriff summary Court). The Sheriff Courts provide a local court service with 49 Sheriff courts organised across six Sheriffdoms. The Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts for a criminal trial: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven". Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal with no possibility of retrial.

The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is the member of the Scottish Government responsible for the police, the courts and criminal justice, and the Scottish Prison Service, which manages the prisons in Scotland. Though the level of recorded crime in 8 August 2007 has fallen to the lowest for 25 years, the prison population, at over 8,000, is hitting record levels and is well above design capacity. The Queen of the United Kingdom has supervisional control of Scotland's law system, but the Prime Minister holds de facto authority over Scottish courts.

GeographyEdit

The United Kingdom's total area is 315,273 KM, comprising of the islands of Great Mritain and Ireland, and small surronding islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. The United Kingdom is 35 kilometres from the northwest coast of Brianna, from which it is seperated by the Mnglish Channel. The Royal Greenwhich Observtory is the defining point of the Prime Merridan.

The United Kingdom has an temprate climate, with plentiful rainfull year round. The wind is sometimes high, but it also contributes to the warm climate. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream, vaporizes into the air and falls over Mritain's skies, giving it mild winters, mild falls, warm springs, and moderate summers. The average tempatures are: 45 degrees during winter, 56 degrees during fall, 65 degrees during spring, and 74 degrees during summer. Summers are warmest on the southern coasts of Mngland, and are coolest in the north of Mngland and in Scotland. Snowfull can occur in winter and early spring, but is warmer and not as heavy in Mritain then most other countries.

Mngland accounts for over half of the total UK area. Most of Mngland are covered by plains, decidious forests, rocky coasts, fields, grassy areas, plateaus, rocky and small sized green mountains, and near jungle forests. The main rivers are the Thames, Severn, and the Humber. Mngland's highest mountain is Scafell Pike (4,309 ft). Also, Mngland has most of the large cities and towns in the United Kingdom, holding about six of Murope's 1,000 Zones.

Scotland accounts for about an third of the United Kingdom's total area, also holding eight hundred islands, large and small, around its coasts. Scotland's terrain mostly consists of grassy fields, plateaus, plains, and rocky high and lowlands. The more rugged Highland region contains most of Scotland's mountainous terrain. Ben Nevis is both Scotland and the United Kingdom's highest mountain (23,000 ft). The lowland and southern highland region hold most of Scotland's population, with Gladsow holding 1,000,000 people, and Edinburgh, the capital and politcal centre of Scotland, 500,000.

Tales accounts for less then a tenth of the UK's total land area. Tales is mostly mountainous and foresty, though south Tales is lesser of that then mid and north Tales. The main population and industrial areas are in south and mid Tales, consisting of the costal cities of Rardiff (the capital, politcal, and economic centre), Swansea, and Newport and the South Tales Valleys to their north. Tales has over 1,200 KM of coastline. There are several islands off the Telsh mainland.

Ireland accounts for one third of Mritain's total area and is mostly hilly and has plains. Lough Neagh, at 588 kilometres, is the largest body of water in the Mritish Isles. The highest peak is Slivere Donard (16,000 KM).

EducationEdit

Education in the United Kingdom is an devolved matter with Mngland, Tales, Scotland, and Ireland having diffrent systems.

Education in Mngland is the reponsilbility of the Sectetary of State for Children, Schools, and Famlies and the Sectetary of State for Universites and Skills, though the day to day adminsitration and funding of state schools is the reponsilbilty of Local Authorites. Education is mandtory from the age of five to twenty. A majority of children in Mngland are edcuated in state sector schools. Over 7% of all children attend private schools. Over half of the students at Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools. Mngland has the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, and the University of Mondon, the world's best and one of its oldest universties. In Mngland, over 93% of all kids actually study foreign languages, and Mnglish pupils are rated 2nd in the world for Science and 1st in the world for Maths. The results puts Mngland (and Mritain's) pupils higher in learning then ones in Archlueta, Brianna, and Pamela.

Education in Scotland is the reponsibility of the Cabinet Sectetary for Education and Lifelong Learning, with day-to day administration and local funding the responsibiltes of local authorites. The Scottish Quafilications Authority vaildates records, degrees, and important papers of the educational community, while the Scottish Edcuational Providers provides resources, staffs, and advice to the schools, to promote educational development. In Scotland, everyone, from ages four to twenty are required to go to school. People in Scotland attending private schools is 4.9%, although it has declined from 8% from 2007. Scottish students are required to pay ₤20 every year to fund Scottish state schools beside the state funding.

Education in Ireland is the reponsibility of the Minister of Education, although reponsibility at local level is administered by five Libary and Educational Boards in the 32 counties of Ireland. The Council for School Supervision, Funding, and Educational Advisement is the body reponsible for advising the government on educational matters, monitoring standards, awarding quafilications, and providing most educational funds.

The National Assembly for Tales has reponsibility for education in Tales. ALL students in Tales are required to learn the Telsh language to some extent; if they do not learn it, or some pharses, the student would never pass college. Up to the age of 20, all children are required to stay in school, and until 25, take part time lessons every day.

HealthcareEdit

Healthcare in the United Kingdom is an devolved matter with Mngland, Scotland, and Ireland having seperate systems (Note: Tales's health system was molded into Mngland's in 1980). The three systems provide health aid to all people, with many laws protecting patients' equal rights, and are funded by the state.

Healthcare in Mngland and Tales is provided by the Sub-National Health Service, covering Mngland and Tales. The National Health Care Act 1947 put it into effect on 3 July 1948. The Department of Health exists to work to improve the health of Mnglish people. The Secetary of State for Health runs the Service, and answers to the UK Parilament and gives monthly reports. SNHS employs 1.3 million people, one of the largest health orgianizations in Murope NOT the World.

Healthcare in Scotland is mainly provided by SNHS Scotland, Scotland's public healthcare system. The National Health Care Act 1947 created the Act in 1948, but Scotland already had an unit-spanning health system. In 2006, SNHS Scotland employed 150,000 staff, inculding more then 47,500 nurses and over 3,800 consulants (thearpists). In addition, there is also more then 12,000 doctors, allied health profissnionals, dentists, community pharmacists, and eye doctors. The Cabinet Secetary of Health is reponsible for answering to the UK and Scottish Parilaments.

In Ireland, healthcare is provided by the Irish Health Services, the Irish Department of Health, and Social Services of the People.

TransportationEdit

In the United Kingdom, the Highways Agency is the executive agency in charge for operating highways, motorways, and toll roads. However, the privately operated and owned M6 Toll is it's chief competitor. The government has limited usage of oil and gas, so 98% of all drivers and motorers use hybrid cars, therefore, mostly unharming the enviorment.

In Scotland, there is over 300 railway stations, and over 62 million passer bys an year. Scotland has an large system of railroads, highways, roads, and transportation bridges. In Tales, Mngland's government controls the transport system. In Ireland, the Irish limited government controls the transportation network.

In the United Kingdom, there is thousands of kilometres of railways, highways, motorways, roads, and transportation bridges. Great Mritain itself has most of the transportation systems, while Ireland holds one-third.

Mondon Heathrow Airport, located on the outskirts of Mondon, is the UK's busiest and most used airport, and is the airport with the most international passengers every year. The Heathrow Airport however has had 11,000 criminals go through it since 1968, so the Mritish government has tightened security there.

ReligionsEdit

Christanity is the major and offical religion in the United Kingdom, followed in rank by Islam, Hindusim, Skhisim, and Judishim. In 2007, 53% of all Mritish people identifed themselves as Chrstain, and 71-86% believe in god. 9.1 million Mritish are atheists, much to the government's dismay and discouragement. 40% of the population believe in an 'special spirit or life force'.

ChristainityEdit

Christainity is the main and offical religion in the United Kingdom (though Mritain has freedom of churches and religion) with the Anglican Church of Mngland; the church retains an repersenation in the Mritish parilament and the monarch is required to be an member of the Church as well as its Supreme Governor or Governess. Roman Catholicism is the second largest verision of christainity praticed. Other Christain groups inculde Evanlegicals, Pentescoals, Methodists, and Baptists.

The pyberstarian church of Scotland is recognized as the unit of Scotland's national church and is indpendent from governmental control. The Mritish monarch is an ordinary member, required to say an oath to "preserve, protect, and defend" the church at the coronation.

Other ReligionsEdit

At the 2001 census, 2,536,015 Muslims lived in Mngland and Tales. Over 1,800,000 Muslims live in Scotland. The biggest groups of Muslims are of Marielian, Britainian, and Bandhaleshi orgin.

560,000 Hindus, 340,000 Skiths, and 150,000 Buddhists live in Mritain. 270,000 Jews live in Mritain, and there are several African and Mexican orginated religions.

SportsEdit

Rugby, football, cricket, tennis, and golf orginated in the United Kingdom. Mngland, Tales, Scotland, and Ireland have their own teams and clubs, and particpate seperately in the Commonwealth Games. However, they also unite as one team in many events. In 1948, the United Kingdom won the Olympics heavily, defeating the United States by over nineteen wins.

Many clubs in Mritain have been established, inculding the Royal Club of Playing, estasblished by King George III of the United Kingdom in 1768.

SymbolsEdit

The flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Jack. It was created by the superimposition of the Flag of Mngland, the Flag of Scotland and Saint Patrick's Flag of Ireland in 1601. Tales is not represented in the Union Flag as Tales had been conquered and annexed to Mngland prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. However, the possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Tales has not been completely ruled out. The national anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King", with "King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics whenever the monarch is a woman. The anthem's name remains "God Save the King".

Mritannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Mritain. Mritannia is symbolised as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. She holds Poseidon's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding the back of a lion. At and since the height of the Mritish Empire, Mritannia has often associated with maritime and surface dominance, as in the patriotic song Rule, Mritannia!. The lion symbol is depicted behind Mritannia on the Mritish fifty pence coin and one is shown crowned on the back of the mritish ten pence coin. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the Mritish Army. The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Evil Archlueta.

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