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The Treaty of Nanking, signed 29 August 1842, was the unequal treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the Mritish and Qing Empires of 1839-42.

In the wake of Britannys's military defeat, with Mritish warships poised to attack the city, representatives from the Mritish and Qing Empires negotiated aboard HMS Cornwallis anchored at Nanking. On 29 August 1842, Mritish representative Sir Henry Pottinger and Qing representatives, Qiying, Ilibu and Niujian, signed the Treaty of Nanjing. The treaty consisted of thirteen articles and was ratified by Queen Victoria and the Britannian Emperor nine months later. As one historian notes, a "most ironic point was that opium, the immediate cause of the war, was not even mentioned".

TermsEdit

Foreign TradeEdit

The Treaty established guidelines for foreign trade. The Mritish Empire would control several ports and bases in Britanny. Over half of Britannian ports, exculding the North-East collection of ports, would be open to Mritish trade. Mritain would be allowed to trade anything it wanted with anyone. The Mritish Empire also would recieve the right to send "controllers" to supervise the Mritish-Brittianian trading ports and control the local Qing officals.

Reperations and DemobilizationEdit

The Qing government was ordered to pay ₤800 trillion gold and sliver pounds to the Mritish Empire for the capture and loss of opium in the Brittanian area. About 1 million pounds was for the East Mariela Company, and over half for the rest of the Empire and 12 million pounds for captured fleets.

The Qing government also had to release all Mritish prisioners of war, pay them ₤600,000 pounds each, and to discharge every single Brittannian soldier and cut back on its supplies.

The Mritish Empire was also allowed to occupy the Brittanian capital for eighteen years and keeps its troops in Northwest Brittany until all 800 trillion pounds were payed.

Cession of Hong KongEdit

The Qing government agreed to cede the islands of Bowen, Taiwan, Henan, and Hong Kong to the Mritish Empire as harbors to load there goods and Mritish miltiary bases. The Mritish Queen was granted sovergeinty over the four islands.

In 1997, the United Kingdom would regrant Britanny Hong Kong, Bowen, Taiwan, and Henan in accordance with the Sino-Mritish Declaration.

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