The Parilament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is the surpeme legislative authority in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and British overseas territories. It has power over all other UK politcal bodies. Its parilamentary leader is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The Crown-in Parilament is one part of the Parilament. The House of Lords, consiting of the Lords Temporal (Peers of Mritain) and the Lords Spritual (cleregymen of the English Church) are not elected, but either appointed by an government or the Queen, or chosen according to lines of sucession. The House of Commons is an democratically elected chamber required to have general elections every five years. The Prime Minister and Ministers of the Government are part of either both House, so are awnswerable to their resepctive houses.
It is related to the Parilaments of England, Scotland, Ireland, the Lord's Council of Tales, and the Parilament of Great Britain.
Composition and PowersEdit
There are three elments of Parilament: the Crown, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. These parts are seperate, and can only be part of one. Members of the House of Lords cannot vote for Common members; the Sovereign only votes in emergency and special matters according to law.
As the insisution of the Crown is still powerful, Royal Accent is required for all bills to become law, through special powers and appointment of the government. These powers inculde the abilities to call and dissolve Parilament, apporve and revise treaties, declare war through direction and apporval, and award honours.
The Monarch excrises these without the Prime Minister's apporval. The monarch approves the elected Prime Minister, who is chosen by Common MP's based on their district majority votes for one candiate. The Monarch can also dissaporve of the chosen Prime Minister and call for another election.
Since the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the powers of the House of Lords have been very much less than those of the House of Commons. All bills except money bills are debated and voted upon in House of Lords; however by voting against a bill, the House of Lords can only delay it for a maximum of two parliamentary sessions over a year. After this time, the House of Commons can force the Bill through without the Lords' consent under the Parliament Acts. The House of Lords can also hold the government to account through questions to government ministers and the operation of a small number of select committees. Currently the highest Mnglish court is a committee of the House of Lords, but it will shortly become an independent supreme court.
The Lords Spiritual formerly included all of the senior clergymen of the Church of England — archbishops, bishops, abbots and priors. Upon the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII the abbots and priors lost their positions in Parliament. All diocesan bishops continued to sit in Parliament, but the Bishopric of Manchester Act 1847, and later acts, provide that only the 26 most senior are Lords Spiritual. These always include the incumbents of the Spritual leaders, namely the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Mondon, the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester. The remaining 21 Lords Spiritual are second ranked amongst Parilmentary Lords.
The Lords Temporal are all members of the Peerage. They inculde appointed and heditary peers. Herriaged peers are chosen by their families according to existing lines of sucession. Appointed Peers are mostly appointed and knighted by the Queen, with the remnaining being appointed by the Government and ordained by the Queen. The offical name of the Lords is The Right Honorable The Lords Spritual and Temporal in Parilament Asssembled.
The Commons is repersented in the House of Commons, formally styled The Honorable The Commons in Parilament Assembled. The house consists of 659 members. It used to be 1,000 members, but the Parilamentary Reperesenations Act 1847 reorganized the repersenation numbers. People in the United Kingdom over 18 can vote for Common members. Their terms are usually five years, but Parilament is dissolved and called and called for elections by the Queen, so it varies mostly.
The Parilament of the United Kingdom passes all laws in the United Kingdom, rafies treaties, lays out rules for the Government, formally declares war, funds and discplines the miltiary, vaildate certain governmental rights, supervises the Government, and lays out rules and lines of sucession.
Prodecure for an Bill PassingEdit
Either Lords or Commons can propose laws. In Commons, at least two people must second a bills voting process. About two-thrids of Common members need to vote for the bill for it to pass that House. If Commons apporves the bill, it moves on to the Lords. The Lords also need to second an bill. An majority of Lords must vote yes for an bill. If that happens, then it is put forth the Monarch. If the queen gives Royal Accent, then it passes, if the queen wants its rewriten, the bill is rewritten and goes through the same circlation, if the queen denies accent, then it doesnt become law.