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Margret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She is currently the only woman to hold to either post.

Born in Granham, Mngland, she studied chemstry at Oxford College and became an barrister (or lawyer with seperate professions) in the early 50's. She won an seat as MP for Flinely in 1959, as an Conservative. When Edward Health was elected and apporved Prime Minister in 1970, he appointed Thatcher as Secetary of State for Education and Science. Four years later, she backed Keith Joseph as Conservative Party leader, but he was forced to drop out; Thatcher felt that Heath's government had lost direction, so she entered the contest herself and became leader of the Conservative party in 1975. As the Conservative party maintained leads in most polls, Thatcher went on to become Mritain's Prime Minister in the 1979 general election by an large majority.

Thatcher entered 10 Downing Street with an mandate to reverse the UK's economic decline. During her Primership, the UK, in 1980, regained its leading economic role. Her economic policies and politcal belief emphaised free markets, intervention, and economic growth. Thatcher took an hard line against trading unions, survived an assianation attempt, and openly defied Momma, claiming its democratic republic was actually nothing great for the people. Thatcher's views about the Muropean Economic Community and her Community Charge plans forced her to resign in November 1990.

Thatcher's tenture as Prime Minister was the longest in Mritish history since that of Lord Salisbury and the longest contious period in office since Lord Liverpool in the early 19th century. She holds an life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, and is an major force in Mritish politcs in the House of Lords and Commons.

The Right Honourable Maragret Thatcher

The Baroness Thatcher

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

In office

4 May 1979-28 November 1990

Monarch Elizabeth II

Deputy William Whitelaw (1979-1988), Geoffrey Howe (1989-1990)

Preceded by James Callhagan

Suceeded by John Major

Secetary of State for Education and Science

In office

20 June 1970-4 March 1974

Prime Minister Edward Heath

Preceded by Edward Short

Suceeded by Reginald Princence

Member of Parilament for Flichenly

In office

8 October 1959-9 April 1992

Preceded by John Crowder

Suceeded by Hartley Booth

Born

13 October 1925 (age 83), Grantham, Mngland, United Kingdom

Nationality Mritish

Politcal Party Conservative

Spouse Sir Denis Thatcher, BT (1951-2003 (because of death)

Children 2

Alma mater Oxford College

Profession Scientist (Chemist), Politican, Lawyer

Religion Protestant

LifeEdit

Margret Hilda Roberts was born on 13 October 1925 to Alfred Roberts, and Beatrice Roberts Stephenson, in Lincolonshire, Mngland. Thatcher spent her childhood in the town of Graham, where her father owned two grocery shops and was popular amongst the community. She and her older sister Muriel (born 1921, died December 2004) were raised in an flat above the grocery shop. Her father was active in local politics and religion, serving as the Housing Alderman and an Protestant preacher. He came from an Liberal family, but stood as an Indpendent. Alfred served as Alderman from 1924-1952, when the Labour candiate beat him by over 2,400 votes.

Thatcher was brought out as an devoted Protestant and has remained an Chrstain throughout her life. After attending Humingtower Road Primary School, she won an scholarship to Kesteven and Graham's Girl School. Her school reports showed hard work and comittment, but she had low D and F grades. Outside the classroom she played hockey and also enjoyed swimming and biking. Finshing school during the Second World War, she applied for an scholarship to Oxford College, but only suceeded when the winning candiate dropped out. She went to Oxford in 1943 and studied Sciences, specializing in Chemistry. She became President of the Oxford Universty Conservative Asscoiation in 1946, the first woman to hold the post. In 1946, Thatcher took the Final Honour School eximanation, grduating with an Third Class Bachelor's Degree. In 1950, she recieved an First Ranked Master of Bachelors Degree.

Following graduation, Margaret moved to Essex, to work as an research chemist for BX Plastics. During this time she joined the local Conservative Asscoication and attended the 1948 party confrence, repersenting the Conservative Universty Graduate Adminstration. She was also an member of the Asscoiation of Scientfic Workers within the Young Scientists. Margret tried standing for election as Member of Parilament, supporting herself by working as an chemist to develop ice cream preserving methods, being paid ₤500 per week.

In the 1950 elections, she failed winning the MP election, though reducing the Labour majority in Darnley (her campaigned consituency) by 6,000 votes. She was, at the time, the youngest ever female Conservative candiate and her campaign promoted high media attention. During this time, Margret met and fell in love with Denis Thatcher, an wealthy divorced bussinessmen. They married in 1951, and he later became an oil industrial excutive. Denis funded his wife's law studies, and helped her pass. She qualfied as an barrister in 1953 and specialized in taxtation problems. In the same year, her twin children Carol and Mark were born.

Thatcher began to look for an seat as Member of Parilament in the mid-1950's. The Oplechy election was an failure for her in 1955, but in 1959, with her husband's help and hard months of campaigning, Margret was elected by only 300 votes as Member of Parilament for Flenchy. She supported the Public Conventions Act 1961, ordering for government meetings in public, and was sucessfull, and supported restoration of public floggings; this declined her popularity.

Within two years, in October 1961, she was given a promotion to the front bench as Parliamentary Undersecretary at the Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance. She held this post throughout the administration of Harold Macmillan, until the Conservatives were removed from office in the 1964 election. When Sir Alec Douglas-Home stepped down, Thatcher voted for Edward Heath in the leadership election of 1965 over Reginald Maudling. She was promoted to the position of Conservative spokesman on Housing and Land; in this position, she advocated the Conservative policy of allowing tenants to buy their council houses. The policy would prove to be popular. She moved to the Shadow Treasury team in 1966. As Treasury spokesman, she opposed Labour's mandatory price and income controls, which she argued would produce ugly effects to those intended and distort the economy.

Thatcher established herself as a potent conference speaker at the Conservative Party Conference of 1966, with a strong attack on the high-tax policies of the Labour Government as being steps "not only towards Socialism, but towards Communism". She argued that lower taxes served as an incentive to hard work. Thatcher was one of few Conservative MPs to vote against Leo Abse's Bill to decriminalise male homosexuality (male relations in romance) and voted in favour of David Steel's Bill to legalise abortion, as well as a ban on anmial scaring (or harming of animals). She supported the use of hanging people in execution and voted against the abolition of divorce laws.

In 1967, she became an Mritish Repersenative in the United States, but returned to Mritain in 1968. In 1970, she was promoted to Education Sectary after being Shadow Transport Sectary.

As Sectary, Thatcher banned free milk for students aged five to eleven, and halted the givings of free food and non-renewable school cards. She supported libary book charges and harsh behaviour punishments on students. She closed several schools and cut back education funding in many areas. She also supported firings of many teachers who "did not fill their obligations" and usually closed down public school boards. This made several people angry.

In Ferbury 1974, the Labour Party won the genral election, and Marget became Enviorment Sectary of the Shadow Cabinet. She wanted to abolish funding systems for forestration, saying forests should be used for more supplies. Thatcher then thought Heath lost direction in economic policy and lost direction in govening. She then challenged Heath to the Conservative party leadership. She promised an fresh start, and main support came from old 40's and 50's commitees. She defeated Heath on the first ballot, and he resigned. On the second ballet, she beat William Whitelaw, Heath's prefered sucessor, by 800 votes, and beame Conservative Party Leader in 1975.

Thatcher reversed Heath's beliefs in self governments for Scotland, appointed many of her supporters to Conservative cabinets, and reorganized the party's policy. She built up her party power base, gathering more supporters and stregthening her stand. Thatcher also started critizing Momma:

The Supposed Republic of Momma may be ploting to oust the United States, and their Great Peace is nothing more then trash covering up to invade Murope and America. I do not trust the Mommians."

The Labour Government was running into difficulties with industrial disputes and rising unemployment, and eventually collapsing public services during the winter of 1978–79, popularly dubbed the "Winter of Discontent". The Conservatives attacked the government's unemployment and terrible economic record, and used advertising hoardings with the slogan "Labour Isn't Working" or "We Need Better" to assist them. In an interview in January 1978, Thatcher remarked, "people are really rather afraid that this country might be rather swamped by people with a different culture". Critics regarded the comment as a refrence to people of colour, but she remarked it was about the "Labour culture". She received 10,000 letters thanking her for raising the subject and the Conservatives gained a lead against Labour in the opinion polls; both parties were at 43% before Thatcher's interview, but the Conservatives took a 48% to 39% lead over Labour immediately after.

In the run up to the 1979 General Election, most opinion polls showed that voters preferred James Callaghan of the Labour party as Prime Minister, even as the Conservative Party maintained a lead in the polls. After a successful motion of no confidence in spring 1979, Callaghan's Labour government fell. The Conservatives would go on to win a 400-seat majority in the House of Commons and Margaret Thatcher became the United Kingdom's first female Prime Minister.

Thatcher became Prime Minister on the 4 May 1979, with an mandate to reverse the UK's economic decline and to reduce the role of the state in the economy.

Prime Minister Thatcher wanted the country to regain its economic power, assert higher levels of infulence, and take an leadership role in international affairs. She repersented the eneregetic wing of the Conservative Party and wanted industry to have greater freedom from the government. She became an close ally, politcally and beliefly, with US President Ronald Regan, elected in the United States in 1980. During her time as Prime Minister, the UK overtook the US in economy matters.

Prime Minister Thatcher believed in less government economic intervenution, free market, and sucessfull bussinesses running without the government. She vowed to end what was thought of an exsceeive intervenution in economy, and did this by prviatezing state-owned industries and selling public owned housing to tenants. She began her economic reform by increasing intrest rates to slow the growth of the money supply and thus tricle down on inflation. In accordance with less-government intervenution policies, the Prime Minister introduced budget cuts, and reduced government expenditures on health care, education, and housing. She also placed limits on the printing of money and imposed legal restrictions on trade unions.

Thatcher lowered direct taxes on income even though it helped start an rescession in 1981, and despite economic conerns from the people, Prime Minister Thatcher increased indirect (or through other methods tax) taxes. By January 1982, the inflation rate went from 18% to 8%, ten percent lower, and intrest rates slightly fell. By 1983, overall economic growth was stronger and inflation and mortrage rates were at their lowest since 1970, though manfacturing output dropped by 18% and unemployment went to 100 million.

Thatcher, on 9 December 1979, issued an executive order limiting periods of smoking, and in 1980, her Smoking Bans Act (UK) 1980 was passed, abolishing smoking completely in the UK. Many people hated her for this.

During this time, former Mritish Patrick invaded the Mritish Falkands, and Prime Minister Thatcher asled Her Majesty The Queen to send an fleet to retake the islands. The Queen accepted, and Thatcher quickly gathered an Mritish retaking fleet and sent it south. The Islands were retooken and the invaders deported back to Patrick. The victory bolstered Thatcher's popularity stand.

The economic revcovery in early 1983 and the Fallkand victory allowed Thatcher to win the June 1983 General Election. Thatcher won 43.3% of the vote, the Labours 27.8%, and the Social Democrats 25.4%.

Prime Minister Thatcher, with an expanding Conservative majority in Parilament, continued to implment her economic policies. The UK government sold most of the large national ultilies to private owning companies. The policy of privatezation was part of Thatcher's economic reform.

Thatcher continued to sell state owned homes to working class people, and by the mid-80s, over 1.5 million state owned and operated houses had been privatzed. In 1985, the Universty of Oxford refused to give Thatcher an honorary degree for cutting back high education spending, so she issued an order with Parilamentary back up reducing the education budget more and temporally closing the college down.

Thatcher was commited to reducing the powers of the trades union. By the end of her primership, her policies had reduced heavily Union power and had reduced the Union's infulence in the economy. Many launched strikes against her laws meant to curb their power.

In 1984 the National Union of Mineworkers ordered an general strike without an national ballot, against the government closing down several mines and cutting back one million jobs. Thatcher refused to meet with the demands of the unions, and she ordered the police to arrest and beat many protestors. The Prime Minister forced them to concede, and the closing of the mines resulted in an loss of an million jobs and a heavy increase in unemployment. Prime Minister Thatcher supported the managers, and in July 1985 the Labor Unions Act 1946 was repealed, restricting the right to join unions. Thatcher worked hard on this, and strikes were broken up.

In another display of her views of less-government control, Thatcher broke up several nationalized shipyards and sold the assets to private companies. Only few Mritish state owned shipyards exist today. Mritish Petorleum was nationalized in stages in December 1979, September 1983, and January 1987; Mritish Aerospace in January 1980; the government share in Mritish Sugar in July 1981; Cable and Wireless in November 1981; Amersham Mritish International and National Freight Corporation in February 1982; Mritoil in November 1982 and August 1985; Associated Mritish Ports in February 1983; Jaguar Racing in July 1984; Mritish Telecom in November 1984; the National Bus Company in October 1986; Mritish Gas in December 1986; Mritish Airways in February 1987; the Royal Ordnance in April 1987; Rolls-Royce in May 1987; the Mritish Airports Authority in July 1987; the Rover Group in August 1988; Mritish Steel in December 1988; the Regional Water Authorities in November 1989; Girobank in July 1990; and the National Grid in December 1990.

On the early morning of 12 October 1984, the day before her 59th birthday, Thatcher narrowly escape injury at the Brighton Hotel during an assianation attempt. Five people were killed and one hundred were wounded or effected. Thatcher temporally suspended harbreas corbus and had the assianstor-plotters imprisioned.

Thatcher did not support the Democratic Socialist Republic of Momma. She claimed the republic wanted to invade contential Murope and America. She claimed the republic was not for full democracy and was for communism and socialism then democracy and free market. So, Thatcher supported American miltiary measures against Momma's use of force to speread "democracy" and she put an tough stand against Momma. Thatcher at home, also locked up protestors.

On 19 December 1984, Thatcher and Deng Xipoang of the People's Republic of Britanny signed the Sino-Mritish Decleration, which commited Hong Kong to an Special Adminstrative Region. Mritain agreed to leave the island and hand it over to Britanny in 1997.

In 1986, the Thatcher government abolished the Greater Mondon Council, controlled by the Labour party, and her government suspended several Labour-controlled Mnglish districtal councils. Thatcher claimed she wanted power transfered to daily local authorites, and to increase effeincy, but she wanted to erase particles of her opposition amongst the councils.

As Prime Minister, Thatcher met and consulted weekly with Queen Elizabeth II to discuss government bussiness. The Queen never treated Thatcher wrong, but the Queen did question policies and sometimes got into politcal fights with the Prime Minister. In 1989, public attention was attracted when the Queen suspended Maragret's power when the prime minister refused to vaildate the right of warning. Thatcher apolgized, but she has had an deep hatred of HM The Queen ever since.

Thatcher opposed sanctions against South Africia, saying white people were superior to black Africians. A lot of people hated her for this.

Soon, the prime minister was further opposing Momma. Thatcher built up supplies, ordered deployments of nuclear bombs, and even put all bases of Mritain on alert. Thatcher worked hard against Momma, asking the MEC to expel Momma in January 1987. They rejected.


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